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SQL

SQL Online Training

SQL Overview

  • Outlining SQL as the cornerstone of database activity
  • Applying the ANSI/ISO standards
  • Describing the fundamental building blocks: tables, columns, primary keys and foreign keys

Building the Database Schema

Creating tables and columns

  • Building tables with CREATE TABLE
  • Modifying table structure with ALTER TABLE
  • Adding columns to an existing table
  • Removing tables with DROP TABLE

Protecting data integrity with constraints

  • Guaranteeing uniqueness with primary key constraints
  • Enforcing integrity with foreign key constraints
  • Imposing business rules with check constraints
  • Enabling and disabling constraints
  • Removing constraints with ALTER TABLE

Improving performance with indexes

  • Expediting data retrieval with indexes
  • Recommending guidelines for index creation

Manipulating Data

Modifying table contents

  • Adding table rows with INSERT
  • Changing row content with UPDATE
  • Removing rows with DELETE

Applying transactions

  • Atomic Consistent Isolated Durable (ACID) rules
  • Controlling transactions with COMMIT and ROLLBACK

Writing Single Table Queries

  • Retrieving data with SELECT
  • Restricting rows with the WHERE filter
  • Sorting the result with ORDER BY
  • Handling NULL values in expressions
  • Avoiding NULL value pitfalls in filter conditions

Querying Multiple Tables

Applying the ANSI/ISO standard join syntax

  • Matching related rows with INNER JOIN
  • Including nonmatched rows with OUTER JOIN
  • Creating a Cartesian product with CROSS JOIN

Combining results with set operators

  • Stacking results with UNION
  • Identifying matching rows with INTERSECT
  • Utilizing EXCEPT to find nonmatching rows

Employing Functions in Data Retrieval

Processing data with row functions

  • Conditional formatting with the CASE expression
  • Utilizing the CASE expression to simulate IF tests
  • Dealing with NULL values

Performing analysis with aggregate functions

  • Summarizing data using SUM, AVG and COUNT
  • Finding the highest/lowest values with MAX and MIN
  • Defining the summary level with GROUP BY
  • Applying filter conditions with HAVING
  • Constructing Nested Queries

Applying subqueries in filter conditions

  • Correlated vs. noncorrelated subqueries
  • Testing the existence of rows

Including subqueries in expressions

  • Placing subqueries in the column list
  • Creating complex expressions containing subqueries
  • Handling subqueries that return no rows

Developing In-Line and Stored Views

Breaking down complex problems

  • Selecting data from a query result set
  • Subqueries in the FROM clause

Creating views in a database

  • Building reusable code
  • Updateable vs. non-updateable views

 

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